126

A portrait of California State Route 126.

A single, 16mm, hand-processed roll of color reversal film.
This film was edited in-camera.

Shot & Processed by Claire Marie Vogel
Original Music by Mikal Cronin
Driving Buddy/Moral Support by Lauren White

Made at CalArts 2009

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Viewed: 1425

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International Trade: “Made In The USA” 1939 Sound Masters

Support this channel: https://paypal.me/jeffquitney OR https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney

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‘Presented by the Committee on International Economic Policy, in cooperation with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, directed by Frank Donovan, shot by Don Malkames, edited by James Pozzi. Produced by Sound Masters, Inc.’

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_trade
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has existed throughout history (for example Uttarapatha, Silk Road, Amber Road, scramble for Africa, Atlantic slave trade, salt roads), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries.

Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade. When trade takes place between two or more nations factors like currency, government policies, economy, judicial system, laws, and markets influence trade.

To smoothen and justify the process of trade between countries of different economic standing, some international economic organisations were formed, such as the World Trade Organization. These organisations work towards the facilitation and growth of international trade. Statistical services of intergovernmental and supranational organisations and national statistical agencies publish official statistics on international trade…

A product that is transferred or sold from a party in one country to a party in another country is an export from the originating country, and an import to the country receiving that product. Imports and exports are accounted for in a country’s current account in the balance of payments.

Trading globally may give consumers and countries the opportunity to be exposed to new markets and products. Almost every kind of product can be found in the international market, for example: food, clothes, spare parts, oil, jewellery, wine, stocks, currencies, and water. Services are also traded, such as in tourism, banking, consulting, and transportation…

International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not.

However, in practical terms, carrying out trade at an international level is typically a more complex process than domestic trade. The main difference is that international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. This is due to the fact that a border typically imposes additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays, and costs associated with country differences such as language, the legal system, or culture (non-tariff barriers).

Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are often more mobile within a country than across countries. Thus, international trade is mostly restricted to trade in goods and services, and only to a lesser extent to trade in capital, labour, or other factors of production. Trade in goods and services can serve as a substitute for trade in factors of production. Instead of importing a factor of production, a country can import goods that make intensive use of that factor of production and thus embody it. An example of this is the import of labor-intensive goods by the United States from China. Instead of importing Chinese labor, the United States imports goods that were produced with Chinese labor. One report in 2010 suggested that international trade was increased when a country hosted a network of immigrants, but the trade effect was weakened when the immigrants became assimilated into their new country…

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Garden Wise 1950s Monsanto Chemical Company; MPO Productions

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‘About the benefits of fertilizing and putting chemicals made by the Monsanto Company on your lawn and garden… shots of Time Lapse flowers blooming.’

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardening
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture. In gardens, ornamental plants are often grown for their flowers, foliage, or overall appearance; useful plants, such as root vegetables, leaf vegetables, fruits, and herbs, are grown for consumption, for use as dyes, or for medicinal or cosmetic use. Gardening is considered by many people to be a relaxing activity.

Gardening ranges in scale from fruit orchards, to long boulevard plantings with one or more different types of shrubs, trees, and herbaceous plants, to residential back gardens including lawns and foundation plantings, and to container gardens grown inside or outside. Gardening may be very specialized, with only one type of plant grown, or involve a variety of plants in mixed plantings. It involves an active participation in the growing of plants, and tends to be labor-intensive, which differentiates it from farming or forestry…

Indoor gardening is concerned with the growing of houseplants within a residence or building, in a conservatory, or in a greenhouse. Indoor gardens are sometimes incorporated as part of air conditioning or heating systems. Indoor gardening extends the growing season in the fall and spring and can be used for winter gardening.

Native plant gardening is concerned with the use of native plants with or without the intent of creating wildlife habitat. The goal is to create a garden in harmony with, and adapted to a given area. This type of gardening typically reduces water usage, maintenance, and fertilization costs, while increasing native faunal interest.

Water gardening is concerned with growing plants adapted to pools and ponds. Bog gardens are also considered a type of water garden. These all require special conditions and considerations. A simple water garden may consist solely of a tub containing the water and plant(s). In aquascaping, a garden is created within an aquarium tank.

Container gardening is concerned with growing plants in any type of container either indoors or outdoors. Common containers are pots, hanging baskets, and planters. Container gardening is usually used in atriums and on balconies, patios, and roof tops.

Hügelkultur is concerned with growing plants on piles of rotting wood, as a form of raised bed gardening and composting in situ. An English loanword from German, it means “mound garden.” Toby Hemenway, noted permaculture author and teacher, considers wood buried in trenches to also be a form of hugelkultur referred to as a dead wood swale. Hugelkultur is practiced by Sepp Holzer as a method of forest gardening and agroforestry, and by Geoff Lawton as a method of dryland farming and desert greening. When used as a method of disposing of large volumes of waste wood and woody debris, hugelkultur accomplishes carbon sequestration. It is also a form of xeriscaping.

Community gardening is a social activity in which an area of land is gardened by a group of people, providing access to fresh produce and plants as well as access to satisfying labor, neighborhood improvement, sense of community and connection to the environment. Community gardens are typically owned in trust by local governments or nonprofits.

Garden sharing partners landowners with gardeners in need of land. These shared gardens, typically front or back yards, are usually used to produce food that is divided between the two parties.

Organic gardening uses natural, sustainable methods, fertilizers and pesticides to grow non-genetically modified crops…

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Andersen Soup Commercial ~ 1955 Animated Cartoon

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‘ANDERSEN Split Pea, Beef Burger, Cream of Chicken, Old Fashioned Bean Soups

Animation explaining the machinery that splits the peas with two non-identical twin cartoon characters.’

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pea_Soup_Andersen’s
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Pea Soup Andersen’s is a restaurant chain in California that primarily serves travelers. The chain consists of two locations along the state’s two major highways: U.S. Route 101 in Buellton and Interstate 5 in Santa Nella. While the restaurants are best known for their pea soup, they serve complete home-style meals. Both locations include a bakery and gift shop and have an associated hotel on the property. The company also markets a line of canned soups.

History

The original Andersen’s restaurant was founded in 1924 by Anton Andersen and his wife Juliette. Anton Andersen was born in Denmark and had received training in the restaurant business in Europe and New York City. Juliette was born in France. Anton and Juliette purchased property in the small town of Buellton, California, in Santa Barbara County. Buellton and neighboring Solvang were the focus of a Danish colony of Danish Americans and recent immigrants. They opened a small restaurant and named it “Andersen’s Electrical Cafe” in honor of their proudest possession, a new electric stove.

When the restaurant opened, they served simple fare such as sandwiches, pancakes, and coffee. From the beginning their customers were primarily people driving the main highway between Los Angeles and San Francisco (now U.S. Highway 101) – salesmen, tourists and truck drivers. After three months in business, pea soup was added to the menu which was made from a recipe handed down through Juliette’s family. While the restaurant’s reputation became known for their good food, it was Juliette’s pea soup which was the main attraction.

In 1928, the Andersens added a hotel and dining room to the cafe on their property. These changes shifted the focus of Pea Soup Andersen’s from being just a restaurant to a roadside attraction. With Buellton located along Highway 101, it made Pea Soup Andersen’s a convenient stop for travelers heading between the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area.

In the 1930s, their son Robert entered the business after graduating from Stanford University. He nicknamed himself “Pea Soup Andersen”, which became the name of the restaurant and business in 1947. He established the tradition of billboards up and down the state of California. He also acquired the rights to a cartoon called “Little Known Occupations”, which showed comical chefs splitting peas with a hammer and chisel, and turned them into the restaurant’s mascots, “Hap-pea” and “Pea-wee”.

In the early 1950s, animator and future Gumby creator Art Clokey produced stop motion commercials for Pea Soup Andersen’s.

In 1965, the restaurant was sold to Vince Evans. He developed a miniature train, aviary, and even a small wild animal park on the property, but they were demolished in 1970 to make room for a Danish-themed motel.

In 1976, the company established a second location in Santa Nella, California, in Merced County near Interstate 5. The property included a restaurant, gift shop, hotel, and gas station, all branded with the Andersen’s name. A distinctive feature was a working windmill, attached to the restaurant and visible from the highway, which became a symbol of the company.

During the 1980s two additional short-lived restaurants were opened, in Mammoth Lakes and in Carlsbad near Interstate 5. The Carlsbad location became a TGI Friday’s, which closed in 2018. The location, now named the Windmill Food Hall, houses eleven restaurants and a bar, and features the Andersen windmill, which was repaired in the summer of 2019.

A restaurant with a significant hotel was opened at 2910 Pea Soup Anderson Blvd, Selma, California. It is no longer a Pea Soup Andersen’s but as of 2019 it is still open and confusing people with their version of split pea soup…

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Dog Food Production at Canine Kitchens 1937 Chevrolet Leader News Newsreel Vol. 3 No. 1

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‘DOG DINNERS DE LUXE.

Commercial kitchen preparing dog
food for home delivery.

Title Card: “Canine Kitchens Grind to Serve…And Fido is Assured of a Dog Dinner DeLuxe Delivered Daily to His Door”‘

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_food
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Dog food is food specifically formulated and intended for consumption by dogs and other related canines. Dogs are considered to be omnivores with a carnivorous bias. They have the sharp, pointed teeth and shorter gastrointestinal tracts of carnivores, better suited for the consumption of meat than of vegetable substances, yet also have 10 genes that are responsible for starch and glucose digestion, as well as the ability to produce amylase, an enzyme that functions to break down carbohydrates into simple sugars – something that carnivores lack. Dogs evolved the ability living alongside humans in agricultural societies, as they managed on scrap leftovers from humans.

Dogs have managed to adapt over thousands of years to survive on the meat and non-meat scraps and leftovers of human existence and thrive on a variety of foods, with studies suggesting dogs’ ability to digest carbohydrates easily may be a key difference between dogs and wolves.

In the United States alone, the dog food market is expected to reach $23.3 billion by 2022…

Dry dog food usually consists of bagged kibble that contains 3-11% water. It makes up the vast majority of pet foods.

Dry food is both convenient and typically inexpensive, with over $8 billion worth being sold in 2010 – a 50% increase over just seven years earlier…

Wet or canned dog food usually is packaged in a solid or soft-sided container. Wet food contains roughly 60-78% water, which is significantly higher in moisture than dry or semi-moist food. Canned food is commercially sterile (cooked during canning); other wet foods may not be sterile. Sterilizing is done through the process of retorting, which involves steam sterilization at 121 degrees Celsius. A given wet food will often be higher in protein or fat compared to a similar kibble on a dry matter basis (a measure which ignores moisture); given the canned food’s high moisture content, however, a larger amount of canned food must be fed in order to meet the dog’s required energy needs. Grain gluten and other protein gels may be used in wet dog food to create artificial meaty chunks, which look like real meat…

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Black Marketing ~ 1944 US Office of War Information; World War II

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‘Great 1940s gangster film. Great shots of mobsters in the country and doing black market business with butchers. Great courtroom scenes with prosecutor delivering speech to jury…’

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_market
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

A black market, underground economy or shadow economy, is a clandestine market or series of transactions that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the drug trade, prostitution (where prohibited), illegal currency transactions and human trafficking. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitute membership in the unreported economy.

Because tax evasion or participation in a black market activity is illegal, participants will attempt to hide their behavior from the government or regulatory authority. Cash usage is the preferred medium of exchange in illegal transactions since cash usage does not leave a footprint. Common motives for operating in black markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes and regulations, or skirt price controls or rationing. Typically the totality of such activity is referred to with the definite article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services, e.g. “the black market in bush meat”.

The black market is distinct from the grey market, in which commodities are distributed through channels that, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer, and the white market, in which trade is legal and official.

Black money is the proceeds of an illegal transaction, on which income and other taxes have not been paid, and which can only be legitimised by some form of money laundering. Because of the clandestine nature of the black economy it is not possible to determine its size and scope…

Black markets flourish in most countries during wartime. States that are engaged in total war or other large-scale, extended wars often impose restrictions on home use of critical resources that are needed for the war effort, such as food, gasoline, rubber, metal, etc., typically through rationing. In most cases, a black market develops to supply rationed goods at exorbitant prices. The rationing and price controls enforced in many countries during World War II encouraged widespread black market activity. One source of black-market meat under wartime rationing was by farmers declaring fewer domestic animal births to the Ministry of Food than actually happened. Another in Britain was supplies from the US, intended only for use in US army bases on British land, but leaked into the local native British black market.

For example, in the Parliament of the United Kingdom on February 17, 1945, members said that “the whole turkey production of East Anglia had gone to the black market” and “prosecutions [for black-marketing] were like trying to stop a leak in a battleship”, and it was said that official prices of such foods were set so low that their producers often sold their produce on the black market for higher prices; one such route (seen to operate at the market at Diss in Norfolk) was to sell live poultry to members of the public, and each purchaser would sign a form promising that he was buying the birds to breed from, and then take them home for eating.

During the Vietnam war, American soldiers would spend Military Payment Certificates on maid service and sexual entertainment,[citation needed]. Also if a Vietnamese civilian wanted something that was hard to get, he would buy it at double the price from one of the soldiers, who had a monthly ration card and thus had access to the military stores.[citation needed] The transactions ran through the on-base maids to the local populace. Although these activities were illegal, only flagrant or large-scale black-marketeers were prosecuted by the military…

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Pork People Like 1956 University of Illinois, Audio-Visual Center

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‘Illustrates the different qualities of pork and shows how to acquire the best in meat purchases. Explains the importance of a “meat” type hog, with the necessary steps to raise it, and distinguishes it from the “fat” type. Instructs the housewife in the selection of good meat for her table.’

Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pork
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Pork is the culinary name for the meat of a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). It is the most commonly consumed meat worldwide, with evidence of pig husbandry dating back to 5000 BC.

Pork is eaten both freshly cooked and preserved. Curing extends the shelf life of the pork products. Ham, smoked pork, gammon, bacon and sausage are examples of preserved pork. Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, many from pork.

Pork is not only the most popular meat in the Western world and in Central Europe, is also very popular in the Eastern and non-Muslim parts of Southeastern Asia (Indochina, Philippines, Singapore, East Timor) and in Malaysia. It is highly prized in Asian cuisines for its fat content and pleasant texture…

Charcuterie is the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products such as bacon, ham, sausage, terrines, galantines, pâtés and confit, primarily from pig. Originally intended as a way to preserve meats before the advent of refrigeration, these preparations are prepared today for the flavors that are derived from the preservation processes. In 15th-century France, local guilds regulated tradesmen in the food production industry in each city. The guilds that produced charcuterie were those of the charcutiers. The members of this guild produced a traditional range of cooked or salted and dried meats, which varied, sometimes distinctively, from region to region. The only “raw” meat the charcutiers were allowed to sell was unrendered lard. The charcutier prepared numerous items, including pâtés, rillettes, sausages, bacon, trotters, and head cheese.

Before the mass production and re-engineering of pigs in the 20th century, pork in Europe and North America was traditionally an autumn dish—pigs and other livestock coming to the slaughter in the autumn after growing in the spring and fattening during the summer. Due to the seasonal nature of the meat in Western culinary history, apples (harvested in late summer and autumn) have been a staple pairing to fresh pork. The year-round availability of meat and fruits has not diminished the popularity of this combination on Western plates…

Pigs are the most widely eaten animal in the world, accounting for about 38% of meat production worldwide. As the result, large numbers of pork recipes are developed throughout the world. Jamón is the most famous Spanish inlay, which is made with the front legs of a pig. Feijoada, the national dish of Brazil (also served in Portugal), is traditionally prepared with pork trimmings: ears, tail and feet.

According to the USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service, nearly 100 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide in 2006 (preliminary data). Increasing urbanization and disposable income has led to a rapid rise in pork consumption in China, where 2006 consumption was 20% higher than in 2002, and a further 5% increase projected in 2007. In 2015 recorded total 109.905 million metric tons of pork were consumed worldwide. By 2017, half the world’s pork was consumed in China…

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Employment of Sea Power: WWII Atlantic & Mediterranean Theaters 1956 US Navy Training Film MN-8512A

Support this channel: https://paypal.me/jeffquitney OR https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney

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Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_of_the_sea
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Command of the sea (also called control of the sea or sea control) is a naval military concept regarding the strength of a particular navy to a specific naval area it controlled. A navy has command of the sea when it is so strong that its rivals cannot attack it directly. This dominance may apply to its surrounding waters (i.e., the littoral) or may extend far into the oceans, meaning the country has a blue-water navy. It is the naval equivalent of air supremacy.

With command of the sea, a country (or alliance) can ensure that its own military and merchant ships can move around at will, while its rivals are forced either to stay in port or to try to evade it. It also enables free use of amphibious operations that can expand ground-based strategic options. Most famously, the British Royal Navy held command of the sea for long periods from the 18th to the early 20th century, allowing Britain and its allies to trade and to move troops and supplies easily in wartime while its enemies could not (the importance of which is reflected in the famous British patriotic song, “Rule, Britannia!,” which contains the exhortation, “Rule Britannia! Britannia rule the waves,” even if this was not the poem’s original subject). For example, Britain was able to blockade France during the Napoleonic Wars, the United States during the War of 1812, and Germany during World War I. In the post-World War II period, the United States has had command of the sea.

Few navies can operate as blue-water navies, but “many States are converting green-water navies to blue-water navies and this will increase military use of foreign Exclusive Economic Zones [littoral zone to 200 nautical miles (370 km)] with possible repercussions for the EEZ regime.”…

During the age of sail, there were two primary counter measures to another power holding control of the sea: smuggling, and privateering. Smuggling helped to ensure that a country could continue trading (and obtaining food and other vital supplies) even when under blockade, while privateering allowed the weaker power to disrupt the stronger power’s trade. As these measures, which are examples of asymmetric warfare, came from non-governmental and sometimes criminal organizations, they fell into disfavor with stronger governments. An annex to the Treaty of Paris (1856) banned privateering. That treaty was an oddity in that it was ratified by relatively few countries, but quickly became the de facto law of the sea.

Historic command of the sea in the era of steam

A more modern countermeasure, similar to privateering, was the use of submarine warfare by Germany during World War I and World War II to attack allied merchant shipping primarily in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Baltic Sea.

Historic command of the sea in the era of naval aviation

During World War II, aircraft also became an effective countermeasure to command of the sea, since ships could not defend themselves well against air attack. The Battle of Britain was largely an attempt by Germany to eliminate the Royal Air Force, so that it would not be able to defend the Royal Navy from air attack and even to allow a maritime invasion of Great Britain proper…

Advanced navies, with access to surveillance satellites and large-scale submarine detection systems, can rarely be surprised at sea, but cannot be everywhere. Individual ships of advanced navies can be vulnerable at sea (e.g., the USS Stark hit by an aircraft-delivered anti-ship missile while patrolling the Persian Gulf) or in port (e.g., by the suicide attack on the USS Cole.)

“Blue-water” (high seas) naval capability means that a fleet is able to operate on the “high seas.” While traditionally a distinction was made between the coastal brown-water navy (operating in the littoral zone to 200 nautical miles (370 km) and a seagoing blue-water navy, a new term, “green-water navy,” has been created by the U.S. Navy, which refers to the coastal submarines and fast attack boats of many nations, the larger littoral combat corvettes and similar vessels of a substantial number of powers, and amphibious vessels ranging from elderly LSTs to complex S/VTOL carriers and other specialized ships.

The term brown-water navy appears to have been reduced, in U.S. Navy parlance, to a riverine force…

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Man and Safety: Physiological Limitations 1963 US Air Force Training Film TF-5522c; Graphic Films

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THIS OUTLINE OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MAKEUP OF MAN SHOWS THE BOUNDARIES BEYOND WHICH HUMAN EFFICIENCY BREAKS DOWN AND ACCIDENTS OCCUR. POINTS OUT ADDED COMPLEXITY OF EQUIPPING MAN TO SURVIVE ENVIRONMENTS OF OUTER SPACE. EXPLAINS IN DETAIL WHAT THE BODY DEMANDS FOR NORMAL FUNCTIONING INCLUDING FOOD, WATER, ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, IDEAL TEMPERATURES, EXERCISE AND RELAXATION. DESCRIBES TEMPORARY OR PERMANENT INJURIES RESULTING FROM TOXIC GASES, TEMPERATURE EXTREMES, IMPROPER FOODS, ALCOHOL, ETC. RECONSTRUCTION OF SEVERAL ACCIDENTS SHOWS HOW THE SAFETY OF MAN REQUIRES A SENSIBLE OBSERVANCE OF HIS PHYSIOLOGICAL LIMITS.

Produced by Graphic Films.

Originally a public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

Safety is the state of being “safe” (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes. Safety can also refer to the control of recognized hazards in order to achieve an acceptable level of risk…

Risks and responses

Safety is generally interpreted as implying a real and significant impact on risk of death, injury or damage to property. In response to perceived risks many interventions may be proposed with engineering responses and regulation being two of the most common.

Probably the most common individual response to perceived safety issues is insurance, which compensates for or provides restitution in the case of damage or loss.

System safety and reliability engineering
System safety and reliability engineering is an engineering discipline. Continuous changes in technology, environmental regulation and public safety concerns make the analysis of complex safety-critical systems more and more demanding.

A common fallacy, for example among electrical engineers regarding structure power systems, is that safety issues can be readily deduced. In fact, safety issues have been discovered one by one, over more than a century in the case mentioned, in the work of many thousands of practitioners, and cannot be deduced by a single individual over a few decades. A knowledge of the literature, the standards and custom in a field is a critical part of safety engineering. A combination of theory and track record of practices is involved, and track record indicates some of the areas of theory that are relevant. (In the USA, persons with a state license in Professional Engineering in Electrical Engineering are expected to be competent in this regard, the foregoing notwithstanding, but most electrical engineers have no need of the license for their work.)

Safety is often seen as one of a group of related disciplines: quality, reliability, availability, maintainability and safety. (Availability is sometimes not mentioned, on the principle that it is a simple function of reliability and maintainability.) These issues tend to determine the value of any work, and deficits in any of these areas are considered to result in a cost, beyond the cost of addressing the area in the first place; good management is then expected to minimize total cost…

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Nutrition: “Our Food and Our Health” 1947 US Army Training Film TF8-1476 15min

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IMPORTANCE OF PROPER EATING HABITS AS A FACTOR IN MAINTAINING INDIVIDUAL SOLDIER’S HEALTH AND WELL-BEING.

Originally a public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied.
The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Healthy_diet
Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health. A healthy diet provides the body with essential nutrition: fluid, macronutrients, micronutrients, and adequate calories.

For people who are healthy, a healthy diet is not complicated and contains mostly fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and includes little to no processed food and sweetened beverages. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although a non-animal source of vitamin B12 is needed for those following a vegan diet. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health.

A healthy lifestyle includes getting exercise every day along with eating a healthy diet. A healthy lifestyle may lower disease risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and cancer.

There are specialized healthy diets, called medical nutrition therapy, for people with various diseases or conditions. There are also prescientific ideas about such specialized diets, as in dietary therapy in traditional Chinese medicine…

Recommendations

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) makes the following 5 recommendations with respect to both populations and individuals:

Maintain a healthy weight by eating roughly the same number of calories that your body is using.

Limit intake of fats. Not more than 30% of the total calories should come from fats. Prefer unsaturated fats to saturated fats. Avoid trans fats.

Eat at least 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day (potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots do not count). A healthy diet also contains legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), whole grains and nuts.

Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better).

Limit salt / sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

WHO stated that insufficient vegetables and fruit is the cause of 2.8% of deaths worldwide.

Other WHO recommendations include:

ensuring that the foods chosen have sufficient vitamins and certain minerals;

avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances;

avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs);

and replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats in the diet, which can reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and diabetes.

United States Department of Agriculture

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends three healthy patterns of diet, summarized in the table below, for a 2000 kcal diet.

It emphasizes both health and environmental sustainability and a flexible approach. The committee that drafted it wrote: “The major findings regarding sustainable diets were that a diet higher in plant-based foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and lower in calories and animal-based foods is more health promoting and is associated with less environmental impact than is the current U.S. diet. This pattern of eating can be achieved through a variety of dietary patterns, including the “Healthy U.S.-style Pattern”, the “Healthy Vegetarian Pattern” and the “Healthy Mediterranean-style Pattern”. Food group amounts are per day, unless noted per week…

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