The Treatment And Cure
For type 1 diabetes:
Daily injections of insulin are necessary. One to four daily injections are required to control blood glucose levels. Long acting and rapid acting insulin preparations are available; a combination of the two kinds is often prescribed. A strict diet and schedule of meals are necessary to control blood glucose levels. Your doctor may recommend a diet low in fat, salt, and cholestrol, and May advice you to see a nutritionist for dietary planning. Because both exercise and insulin lower glucose levels. Exercise and insulin injections must be timed so that they do not combine to cause a dangerous drop in blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Strict adherence to the timetable of injections, meals, and exercise is necessary for proper management of the disease.
For type 2 diabetes:
A low diet in fat and other calories, in addition to regular exercise, is necessary to control weight. Oral hypoglycemic drugs, such as tolbutamide, chlorpropamide, tolazamide, acetohexamide, glyburide, glipizide, glimepiride, repaglinide, or meglitonide may be prescribed to increase insulin production by the pancreas, if exercise and diet do not lower glucose levels sufficiently. Other oral agents can reduce insulin resistance (metformin, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone) or slow the absorption of sugars from the intestine (acarbose and miglitol). Insulin injections may be necessary in more severe cases of type 2 diabetes or, or if a patient with type 2 diabetes contracts an additional illness.
For both types of diabetes:
Blood test to measure glucose levels should be performed as your doctor recommends, one to four times a day. Your doctor will recommend a blood-monitoring device to use at home. Careful attention must be paid to the risk factors for atherosclerosis because of its increased occurrence with diabetes. Those suffering from diabetes should not smoke, should reduce dietary saturated fat, cholesterol, and salt, and should take any medications prescribed for high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels. People with diabetes should drink generous amounts of water when stricken with another illness, such as the flu to replace lost fluid and prevent diabetic coma. When ill, people with type 1 diabetes should test their urine for ketones every four to six hours. People with diabetes should practice good foot care and check their feet every day. Nerve damage from diabetes mellitus reduces sensation in the feet, and small foot problems may turn into major infections. Laser photocoagulation to prevent the rupture of tiny blood vessels in the eye may help to prevent or treat diabetic retinopathy. Most patient with diabetes need an eye examination by an ophthalmologist at least once a year to detect the earliest manifestations of retinopathy. Dialysis, artificial blood filtering process, may be necessary to treat kidney failure. In advanced cases a kidney transplant may be advised. Amitriptyline, desipramine, or nortriptyline, medications usually used to treat depression, or the anti seizure medication gabapentin may be prescribed to relieve the pain in the limbs. Excellent control of blood glucose levels delays or prevents late complications affecting the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Kidney damage can be slowed by controlling blood pressure and using ACE inhibitors. The American diabetes association can provide information about support groups in your area.
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