ABSTRACT: Ancestral health is a new, promising area of scientific endeavor based on the premise that ancient genes and contemporary lives are discordant. The corollary is that health standards and recommendations should be directed toward reestablishing the biological parameters which existed during the late Stone Age. Our current tenets are based on the efforts of many in the past. Their work can be advanced by adducing further theoretical and experimental support for the ancestral health paradigm: that reversion toward the relevant essentials of Paleolithic experience is the surest path towards physical health for all. In actuality the whole world is discordant with contemporary circumstances so we need to broaden our horizons beyond mere individual well-being. Overpopulation, gender inequality, environmental degradation, ethnic antipathy, and socioeconomic inequity are for Earth’s biome the equivalents of cancer, diabetes, and coronary disease for individual humans. Their redress might be best achieved by applying a more encompassing Paleolithic paradigm—an attempt to reclaim the social, ecological, and demographic conditions of our ancestral Eden.